CPR: Save a Life 
By Loren Allen, Grade 9

CPR stands for cardio pulmonary resuscitation. This is the procedure you do when someone is having breathing problems, such as if a toddler is drowning and unconscious. This procedure is used to supply enough time for the ambulance to arrive.

Recently, the American Heart Association has taken out the commonly known part of the procedure which is giving mouth to mouth. The main reason they took out this part of the procedure is that you can get many diseases from doing it, like HIV, Hepatitis C, and more. So they removed this part of the procedure, because many people would not do it because of the mouth to mouth part. But the association replaced the mouth to mouth procedure with a new one. So what are the new steps?

These steps listed below will give you an idea of the new procedure:
  1. Check to see if they are breathing. (Of course, while you do that, have someone else call 911.)
  2. Have a second person tilt the head back.
  3. Start compression (Make sure you are going fast and 100 compressions per minute.)

Now compression varies depending on the size of the person.  
  1. If you can hold them (baby size), you will use two fingers (middle and pointer)
  2. If you can carry them (toddler), you will use one hand palm
  3. If you can’t carry the person (depending on strength), you will use both hands.

So what if you forget all these steps? You can use an AED, if you have one. You can buy one, but most stores are required to have one. So the next time you go to Wal-Mart, check for the box on the wall. It is usually at the entrance, and it should say in big letters “AED.” AED is a little shocking machine that is used on the chest and diagonal on the stomach.

Here are some useful statistics that you should think about.
  1. About 5,900 children (eighteen years old and under) suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest each year from all causes – including trauma, cardiovascular causes, and sudden infant death syndrome.
  2. Studies have shown that children as young as nine years old can learn and retain CPR skills.
  3. Effective bystander CPR, provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest, can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival.

By learning CPR, you can help save someone’s life. If you want to learn CPR, I would suggest you go to a class that isn’t online. They are usually offered at your local Red Cross, as well as some hospitals and community centers.

Sources: http://articles.nydailynews.com/2010-10-18/entertainment/27078572_1_compressions-breaths-cardiac-arrest
Drawing by Kelsey Gulick, Grade 9

SPF – What does it really mean?
By Charly Santagado, Grade 11

We all choose which sunscreen we will use based upon one sole factor. What is this factor? The bold-faced the number printed on the front of the bottle, of course. But what does it mean? What is the true meaning of this all-powerful number?

The acronym SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor. It is a measurement of the effectiveness of sunscreen against Ultraviolet Radiation. More specifically, it states the level of UV radiation required to cause sunburn when that sunscreen is applied.  Mathematically speaking, it is the amount of light that creates redness in skin sporting sunscreen divided by the amount of light that causes unprotected skin to burn.

I have heard many supposed truths about SPF from various people. One even contended that the number simply tells how long the sunscreen will be effective for. This fallacy most likely sprouted from the fact that the number does have something to do with time. For example, sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will delay sunburn in a person who would normally burn in 10 minutes for 150 minutes.  Therefore, it allows that person – or any person for that matter – to stay out in the sun 15 times longer than he or she could without protection.

Wait!  But why can my friend go out in the sun without wearing any sunscreen and not get burned, whereas I have to apply a generous amount of high protection block to save my skin? This fact demonstrates one of the many reasons that SPF is a limited means of measurement. Variance in skin type, activities, and the amount of sunscreen applied along with innumerable other divergences contribute to its limited nature. Thus, in the end, individuals must take into account their own deviations from the norm in choosing how they will protect the only skin that they have.

Photograph by Rebekah Doucette, Grade 12

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